To finish this blog I would like to generally conclude by starting once more from the beginning with taste.
Taste comes from flavour but also from texture, smell, temperature, vision, etc. What we perceive as taste comes from different senses and from information gained in the past. Taste starts on the tongue with chemicals and goes later to the brain as impulses. In figure 1 you can see how different chemicals can bind to different receptors and so cause a certain taste perception . A typical chemical that induces sweet taste is sugar but also aspartame can induce this flavor. This shows how science can look for taste enhancers (for salt, sugar and umami if wanted) and surpressors (for bitter) e.g. senomyx in one of the previous posts. The question stays if this is a good evoluation and what the influence of these taste enhacers are if consumed in large quantities in different food. A benifit is definitly that nutritional values can be improved without comprimising flavor.
Figure 1: taste recepptors (Biochemistry of taste. Bautista, Noel M. S. )
In a second part of this blog the influence of vision on taste was investigated. Color has proven to be the easiest way to assess the effect of visional cues. Research has proven the influence of color on taste perception to be strong.  This importance of the look of food shows why the food industry spents so much attention on packaging and the looks of their products. If coloring wasn’t applies many fast-foods, chips, cookies and drinks wouldn’t be so appealing any more and maybe cause a healthier diet. Changes like forbidding food colorants are however unthinkable but as mentioned aboves additives can also be used to improve flavor and taste perception of healthy foods.
What could have been an important consideration is the effect of these additives on our health, but little prove exists that they have any effects.
Biochemistry of taste. Bautista, Noel M. S.
Taste perception: More than meets the tongue. Hoegg, J. en Alba, J. W. 33, sl : Journal of consumer research, 2007.
According to Gary Blumenthal from International Food Strategies blue is a color that generally doesn’t appeal in food. Colours that should get your appetite going are reds and greens, but this varies with culture.If you want to lose weight it can help to add some blue coloring to your food, also blue plates and a blue light bulb in the dining area could do the trick. And on a side note, this blue strawberry exists!
On the contrary: These are some of the favorite colors of fast-food chains!
If you want to know more:
While I’m only thinking of letting a computer push the brakes of a vehicle, some are thinking more . Google is experimenting with cars that drive them selves. Until now they were always manned with a driver who can correct if the car is about to do something stupid. Some challenges have been helt with unmanned cars, but they were not on the road.
One of the benefits of the autonomous car is said to be a more efficient utilization of the road . Most efficiency increase will be created only if all cars are autonomous. Take for example the situation given in  with all the cars at a traffic light starting at the same time, instead of one after the other. In this view, a non autonomous car will be expelled from traffic. One day or the other, people who don’t feel safe in a driverless car will have no other choice.
Is this an argument against the driverless cars?
Micro and Nano Metrology
The demands to manufacturing metrology are set by production, so metrology has to follow the trends of production engineering. Two of the most important trends in production engineering are miniaturization (e.g. implantable insulin pumps, cameras for mobile phones, etc.) and the incorporation of micro and nanotechnology into conventionally sized products, e.g. easy-to-clean surface modifications, embedded systems, etc. Modern manufacturing metrology has to support these developments and explore new dimensions. The new tasks are manifold and addressed by bottom-up and top-down approaches. Bottom-up is the modification of analytical tools from materials science or solid matter physics (e.g. scanning probe microscopy) for metrological purposes; top-down is the miniaturization of conventionally sized metrology devices, such as CMMs, for the measurement of micro features.
To know if cleaning was good you must control it.
I chose to do this by examining the waste water. I take a sample of the last rinsing water. From this water I filtrate three times 100ml over a membrane. Then I add the appropriate medium. After that the plates are incubated at the right temperature during a specific period. When time is up, plates are inspected. One can see this in the figure below.
This technique takes several days before result. To become a quick indication of the cleaning I also take ATP swabs in the tank. In the next figure you see how this is done
Two weeks ago I started to examine whether there are still organic compounds in the last rinsing water. Do you think this is useful? Or maybe not in all cases? Should I do some other extra tests?
For this post I’m going to refer to the next video:
Notice how important color is on taste perception and how in the end the question arises if we leave out food coloring in fast-foods we might turn to a healthier diet!
The need for metrology in nanotechnology
The continuous miniaturization in manufacturing technologies now allows fabrication of nano-sized samples as well as nanoscale precision and nanoscale features. This progress is achieved by a variety of techniques such as precision engineering, beam sputtering, and photolithography as well as molecular manipulation. Nano-technology products are now found in pharmaceutical industry, microelectronics, and in precision engineering.
Nano-technology is not only a simple continuation of micro technology. It marks the ultimate end of materials science, namely the dimensions where materials properties stop and molecular properties start. One can also say that nano-technology is where molecular features and materials meet. However, the relevance of molecular features is often implicitly. Whereas the study of DNA is obviously related to nano-technology, the “nano”-aspects of sheet metal for its paintability, and the “nano”- aspects of a honed car-engine cylinder easily escaped the uninitiated eye. Nevertheless the two latter examples have been projects within measurement and testing under previous framework programmes.